Voddoo Nur der Teufel sieht nicht aus wie die weißen Kolonialherren
Voodoo, auch Vodun, Voudou, Wudu oder Wodu, ist eine synkretistische Religion, die sich ursprünglich in Westafrika entwickelte und heute auch in kreolischen Gesellschaften des atlantischen Raums und vor allem in Haiti beheimatet ist. Voodoo [ˈvuːduː], auch Vodun, Voudou, Wudu oder Wodu, ist eine synkretistische Religion, die sich ursprünglich in Westafrika entwickelte und heute auch in. Eine Fledermaus wird für ein Voodoo-Ritual präpariert. Der Fetischmarkt Akodésséwa (französisch marché des féticheurs, auch marché aux fétiches) wird in. Voodoo, Vodun oder Vodù heißt "Gott" oder "Geist". Das sind die unsichtbaren Mächte, die der Mensch sich nicht erklären kann. Um ein glückliches Leben. 1. Die afrokaribische Voodoo-Religion gehört wie die afrobrasilianischen Religionen Candomblé und Umbanda oder die kubanische Santería zu jenen.
Diese entsetzlichen Voodoo-Rituale hingegen sind schreckliche Realität. Wir sollten unsere Wissenslücken in puncto Voodoo schleunigst auffüllen. Mir scheint. Bei Voodoo denken Mitteleuropäer an Puppen, in die mit Nadeln gestochen wird. In dem afrikanischen Land Benin aber ist Voodoo aber ein. 1. Die afrokaribische Voodoo-Religion gehört wie die afrobrasilianischen Religionen Candomblé und Umbanda oder die kubanische Santería zu jenen.
Voddoo - Neuer AbschnittAngaben ohne ausreichenden Beleg könnten demnächst entfernt werden. Es gibt ein umfangreiches Begleitprogramm mit Filmen und Vorträgen. Dort kam es zur Vermischung afrikanischer Götter mit den Heiligen des Christentums und den Symbolen der katholischen Kirche. Diese Tieropfer dienen einerseits der spirituellen Ernährung der Loa , andererseits der Ernährung der Gläubigen. So friedlich in Haiti wie auch in Afrika. Ein Geistertänzer in einem bunten Gewand. Früher war es - da hatte ich mal ein kleines Kreuz mit, andere haben irgend eine Senfkorn-Bibel mit, eine go here Parfümflasche, also irgend so ein Gegenstand, der irgendwie magisch aufgeladen ist, wo ganz im untersten Hintergrund des Gehirns, was wir uns nicht eingestehen, die Hoffnung ist: das schützt auch vor Unglück. Die ersten Spuren finden click at this page bereits im Sie gliedern auch Kriminelle wieder ein, indem sie diese etwa von bösen Geistern befreien. Das Zombiegift wurde verwendet, um Schwerkriminelle ruhigzustellen, vermuten Anthropologen. In Haiti hat sich mit Sodo ein bedeutender Wallfahrtsort des Voodoo gebildet; die römisch-katholische Kirche betrachtet Sodo aufgrund derselben angeblichen Erscheinungen als Marienerscheinungsort und veranstaltet parallel eigene Wallfahrten dorthin. Kunsthistorikerin kritisiert Position des Städel Museums.
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Moral Combat: Slap Fight Flash. Under Cover Flash. It arose through the blending of the traditional religions brought to the island of Hispaniola by enslaved West Africans, many of them Yoruba , and the Roman Catholic teachings of the French colonialists who then controlled the island.
Many Voudou practitioners were involved in the Haitian Revolution which overthrew the French colonial government, abolished slavery, and formed modern Haiti.
The Roman Catholic Church left for several decades following the Revolution, allowing Vodou to become Haiti's dominant religion. In the 20th century, growing emigration spread Vodou elsewhere in the Americas.
Since the late 20th century, some practitioners have emphasized a "Yorubization" process to remove Roman Catholic influences and create forms of Vodou closer to traditional Yoruba religion.
Practitioners of Vodou are primarily found in Haiti, although communities exist in other parts of the Americas, especially among the Haitian diaspora in the United States.
Both in Haiti and abroad it has spread beyond its Afro-Haitian origins and is practiced by individuals of various different ethnicities. Vodou has faced much opposition and criticism through its history, having repeatedly been described as one of the world's most misunderstood religious traditions.
The term Vodou "encompasses a variety of Haiti's African-derived religious traditions and practices". These two peoples composed a sizable number of the early enslaved population in St.
Outside of Haiti, the term Vodou refers to the entirety of traditional Haitian religious practice. Today, the spelling Vodou is the most commonly accepted orthography in English.
The spelling voodoo , once very common, is now generally avoided by Haitian practitioners and scholars when referring to the Haitian religion.
Vodou is an Afro-Haitian religion,  and has been described as the "national religion" of Haiti. There is no central liturgical authority within Vodou,  which takes both domestic and communal forms.
Vodou teaches the existence of single supreme god,  and in this has been described as a monotheistic religion.
Vodou has also been characterised as a polytheistic religion. Although there are exceptions, the majority of the Haitian lwa have names that ultimately derive from the Fon and Yoruba languages.
The lwa are divided into a series of nanchon or "nations". Papa Legba , also known as Legba, is the first lwa to be saluted during Vodou ceremonies.
Zaka or Azaka is the lwa of crops and agriculture. The lwa are associated with specific Roman Catholic saints.
Vodou teaches the existence of a soul which is divided in two parts. Vodou permeates every aspect of its adherent's lives. The scholar of Africana studies Felix Germain suggested that Vodou "defies patriarchy" by rejecting French colonial gender norms.
Critics, especially those from Christian backgrounds, have accused Vodou of promoting a fatalistic outlook that discourages practitioners from improving their society.
Practitioners are usually critical of maji , which refers to the use of supernatural powers for self-serving and malevolent ends.
Those devoted to the Gede spirits dress in a manner linking in with the Gede's associations with death. This includes wearing black and purple clothing, funeral frock coats, black veils, top hats, and sunglasses.
Mostly revolving around interactions with the lwa,  Vodou ceremonies make use of song, drumming, dance, prayer, possession, and animal sacrifice.
Vodou has a strong oral culture and its teachings are primarily disseminated through oral transmission.
Vodou practitioners also believe that if someone ignores their loa it can result in sickness, the failure of crops, the death of relatives, and other misfortunes.
In Vodou, male priests are referred to as oungan , alternatively spelled houngan or hungan ,  while their female counterparts are referred to as manbo , alternatively spelled mambo.
Vodou teaches that the lwa call an individual to become an oungan or manbo. The role of the oungan is believed by practitioners to be modelled on the lwa Loco, who is understood as the chief of Legba's escorts.
Various oungan are homosexual. Oungan and manbo are generally powerful and well-respected members of Haitian society. Vodou entails practitioners being encouraged to undertake stages of initiation into a state of mind called konesans conaissance or knowledge.
Houngans priest or Mambos priestess are usually people who were chosen by the dead ancestors and received the divination from the deities while he or she was possessed.
His or her tendency is to do good by helping and protecting others from spells, however they sometimes use their supernatural power to hurt or kill people.
They also conduct ceremonies that usually take place "amba peristil" under a Vodou temple. However, non-Houngan or non-Mambo as Vodouisants are not initiated , and are referred to as being "bossale"; it is not a requirement to be an initiate to serve one's spirits.
There are clergy in Haitian vodou whose responsibility it is to preserve the rituals and songs and maintain the relationship between the spirits and the community as a whole though some of this is the responsibility of the whole community as well.
They are entrusted with leading the service of all of the spirits of their lineage. Sometimes they are "called" to serve in a process called being reclaimed , which they may resist at first.
These for instance include a pool of water for Danbala, a black cross for Baron Samedi, and a pince iron bar sticking out of a brazier for Criminel.
One of the ounsi becomes the hungenikon or reine-chanterelle , the mistress of the choir. This individual is responsible for overseeing the liturgical singing and shaking the chacha rattle which is used to control the rhythm during ceremonies.
It may be that it exists in their locality or that their family are already members. The Vodou system is hierarchical and includes a series of initiations.
Lithographs of Roman Catholic saints often appear on Vodou altars. Cosentino encountered a shrine in Port au Prince where Baron Samedi was represented by a plastic statue of Santa Claus that had been given a black sombrero.
Various spaces other than the temple are used for Vodou ritual. Spaces for ritual also appear in the homes of many Vodouists.
The creation of sacred works plays an important role in Vodou. The asson is a sacred rattle used in summoning the lwa. Feeding the lwa is of great importance in Vodou.
A mange sec is an offering of grains, fruit, and vegetables that often precedes a simple ceremony. Maya Deren wrote that: "The intent and emphasis of sacrifice is not upon the death of the animal, it is upon the transfusion of its life to the loa; for the understanding is that flesh and blood are of the essence of life and vigor, and these will restore the divine energy of the god.
The nocturnal gatherings of Vodouists are often referred to as the dans "dance" , reflecting the prominent role that dancing has in such ceremonies.
The ritual often begins with a series of Roman Catholic prayers and hymns. The rites employed to call down the lwa vary depending on the nation in question.
The drum is perhaps the most sacred item in Vodou. This is seen as having a destabilising effect on the dancers and helping to facilitate their possession.
The drumming is typically accompanied by the singing of specific Vodou songs,  usually in Haitian Kreyol, albeit words from several African languages incorporated into it.
Spirit possession constitutes an important element of Haitian Vodou,  and is at the heart of many of its rituals. The trance of possession is known as the crise de lwa.
Once the lwa appears and possesses an individual, it is greeted by a burst of song and dance by the congregation.
Alternatively, the clothes are brought out and they are dressed in the peristil itself. The behaviour of the possessed is informed by the lwa possessing them as the chwal takes on the associated behaviour and expressions of that particular lwa.
Possession facilitates direct communication between the lwa and its followers;  through the chwal , the lwa communicates with their devotees, offering counsel, chastisement, blessings, warnings about the future, and healing.
Healing practices play an important role in Haitian Vodou. In Haiti, there are also "herb doctors" who offer herbal remedies for various ailments; they are considered separate from the oungan and manbo and have a more limited range in the problems that they deal with.
The curses of the bokor are believed to be countered by the actions of the oungan and manbo , who can revert the curse through an exorcism that incorporates invocations of protective lwa, massages, and baths.
Zombies are among the most sensationalised aspects of Haitian religion. After the individual was then assumed dead, the Bizango would administer another drug to revive them, giving the impression that they had returned from the dead.
Practitioners of Vodou revere death, and believe it is a great transition from one life to another, or to the afterlife. Some Vodou families believe that a person's spirit leaves the body, but is trapped in water, over mountains, in grottoes—or anywhere else a voice may call out and echo—for one year and one day.
After then, a ceremonial celebration commemorates the deceased for being released into the world to live again. In the words of Edwidge Danticat, author of "A Year and a Day"—an article about death in Haitian society published in the New Yorker—and a Vodou practitioner, "The year-and-a-day commemoration is seen, in families that believe in it and practice it, as a tremendous obligation, an honorable duty, in part because it assures a transcendental continuity of the kind that has kept us Haitians, no matter where we live, linked to our ancestors for generations.
Though other Haitian and West African families believe there is an afterlife in paradise in the realm of God.
On the saints' days of the Roman Catholic calendar, Vodouists often hold "birthday parties" for the lwa associated with the saint whose day it is.
Pilgrimage is a part of Haitian religious culture. There, sacrifices are made and pilgrims immerse themselves in the trou mud pits.
The cultural area of the Fon , Ewe , and Yoruba peoples share a common metaphysical conception of a dual cosmological divine principle consisting of Nana Buluku , the God -Creator, and the voduns s or God-Actor s , daughters and sons of the Creator's twin children Mawu goddess of the moon and Lisa god of the sun.
The God-Creator is the cosmogonical principle and does not trifle with the mundane; the voduns s are the God-Actor s who actually govern earthly issues.
The pantheon of vodoun is quite large and complex. West African Vodun has its primary emphasis on ancestors, with each family of spirits having its own specialized priest and priestess, which are often hereditary.
In many African clans, deities might include Mami Wata , who are gods and goddesses of the waters; Legba , who in some clans is virile and young in contrast to the old man form he takes in Haiti and in many parts of Togo; Gu or Ogoun , ruling iron and smithcraft; Sakpata , who rules diseases; and many other spirits distinct in their own way to West Africa.
A significant portion of Haitian Vodou often overlooked by scholars until recently is the input from the Kongo. The entire northern area of Haiti is heavily influenced by Kongo practices.
In the south, Kongo influence is called Petwo Petro. Many loa a Kikongo term are of Kongo origin such as Basimba belonging to the Basimba people and the Lemba.
In addition, the Vodun religion distinct from Haitian Vodou already existed in the United States previously to Haitian immigration, having been brought by enslaved West Africans, specifically from the Ewe, Fon, Mina, Kabaye, and Nago groups.
Some of the more enduring forms survive in the Gullah Islands. European colonialism , followed by totalitarian regimes in West Africa, suppressed Vodun as well as other forms of the religion.
However, because the Vodun deities are born to each African clan-group, and its clergy is central to maintaining the moral, social, and political order and ancestral foundation of its villagers, it proved to be impossible to eradicate the religion.
The majority of the Africans who were brought as slaves to Haiti were from Western and Central Africa. The survival of the belief systems in the New World is remarkable, although the traditions have changed with time and have even taken on some Catholic forms of worship.
Andrew Apter referred to this as a form of "collective appropriation" by enslaved Africans. Slave-owners were compelled to have their slaves baptised as Roman Catholics and then instructed in the religion;  the fact that the process of enslavement led to these Africans becoming Christian was a key way in which the slave-owners sought to morally legitimate their actions.
First, the Code Noir explicitly forbade the open practice of all African religions. Enslaved Africans spent their Sunday and holiday nights expressing themselves.
While bodily autonomy was strictly controlled during the day at night, the enslaved Africans wielded a degree of agency.
They began to continue their religious practices but also used the time to cultivate community and reconnect the fragmented pieces of their various heritages.
These late night reprieves were a form of resistance against white domination and also created community cohesion between people from vastly different ethnic groups.
Vodou would be closely linked with the Haitian Revolution. Vodou was a powerful political and cultural force in Haiti. Vodou thus gave slaves a way both a symbolic and physical space of subversion against their French masters.
Political leaders such as Boukman Dutty , a slave who helped plan the revolt, also served as religious leader, connecting Vodou spirituality with political action.
The revolution would free the Haitian people from French colonial rule in and establish the first black people's republic in the history of the world and the second independent nation in the Americas.
Haitian nationalists have frequently drawn inspiration by imagining their ancestors' gathering of unity and courage. This extremist view is not considered credible by mainstream Protestants, however conservatives such as Pat Robertson repeat the idea.
Domingue as the First Black Empire; two years later, after his assassination, it became the Republic of Haiti. This was the second nation to gain independence from European rule after the United States , and the only state to have arisen from the liberation of slaves.
No nation recognized the new state, which was instead met with isolation and boycotts. This exclusion from the global market led to major economic difficulties for the new state.
Many of the leaders of the revolt disassociated themselves from Vodou. They strived to be accepted as Frenchmen and good Catholics rather than as free Haitians.
Yet most practitioners of Vodou saw, and still see, no contradiction between Vodou and Catholicism, and also take part in Catholic masses.
The Revolution broke up the large land-ownings and created a society of small subsistence farmers. In the Bizoton Affair of , several Vodou practitioners were accused of ritually killing a child before eating it.
Historical sources suggest that they may have been tortured prior to confessing to the crime, at which they were executed. The U. These groups held several rallies and demonstrations in Haiti.
In March , a new Haitian constitution was introduced; Article 30 enshrined freedom of religion in the country. Since the s, evangelical Protestantism has grown in Haiti, generating tensions with Vodouists;  these Protestants regard Vodou as Satanic ,  and unlike the Roman Catholic authorities have generally refused to compromise with Vodouists.
Haitian emigration began in as largely upper and middle-class Haitians fled Duvalier's government, and intensified after when many poorer Haitians also tried to escape abroad.
Because of the religious syncretism between Catholicism and Vodou, it is difficult to estimate the number of Vodouists in Haiti.
The majority of Haitians practice both Vodou and Roman Catholicism. Vodou does not focus on proselytizing. Major ounfo exist in U.